Manual Building a Successful Palestinian State

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At the Rabat summit conference in , Jordan and the other members of the Arab League declared that the Palestinian Liberation Organization was the "sole legitimate representative of the [Arab] Palestinian people", thereby relinquishing to that organization its role as representative of the West Bank. Israel refused.

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In a speech delivered on 1 September , U. President Ronald Reagan called for a settlement freeze and continued to support full Palestinian autonomy in political union with Jordan. The borders of the state were not specified. Jordan extended recognition to the state and ceded its claim to the West Bank to the Palestinian Liberation Organisation, which had been previously designated by the Arab League as the "sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people".

The PNA, however, does not claim sovereignty over any territory and therefore is not the government of the State of Palestine proclaimed in Referring to "the historical injustice inflicted on the Palestinian Arab people resulting in their dispersion and depriving them of their right to self-determination ," the declaration recalled the Treaty of Lausanne and UN General Assembly Resolution Partition Plan as supporting the rights of Palestinians and Palestine.

The declaration then proclaims a "State of Palestine on our Palestinian territory with its capital Jerusalem". The population of the state was referred to by the statement: "The State of Palestine is the state of Palestinians wherever they may be". The state was defined as an Arab country by the statement: "The State of Palestine is an Arab state, an integral and indivisible part of the Arab nation". This call was later termed "the Historic Compromise", [85] as it implied acceptance of the "two-state solution", namely that it no longer questioned the legitimacy of the State of Israel.

An UNGA resolution was adopted "acknowledging the proclamation of the State of Palestine by the Palestine National Council on 15 November ," and it was further decided that "the designation 'Palestine' should be used in place of the designation 'Palestine Liberation Organization' in the United Nations system ," and it delegate was assigned a seated in the UN General Assembly immediately after non-member states, and before all other observers. The declaration is generally interpreted to be a major step on the path to Israel's recognition by the Palestinians.

By reference to "resolutions of Arab Summits" and "UN resolutions since " like SC it implicitly and perhaps ambiguously restricted its immediate claims to the Palestinian territories and Jerusalem. It was accompanied by a political statement that explicitly mentioned SC and other UN resolutions and called only for withdrawal from " Arab Jerusalem " and the other "Arab territories occupied. In December , the PLO also assumed responsibility for civil administration in 17 areas in Hebron.

MIFTAH - RAND Studies Make Recommendations For a Successful Palestinian State

This situation is said to be accepted by the Palestinian population insofar as it is viewed as a temporary arrangement. In , following the implementation of Israel's unilateral disengagement plan , PNA gained full control of the Gaza Strip with the exception of its borders, airspace, and territorial waters. The West Bank and Gaza Strip continued to be considered by the international community to be Occupied Palestinian Territory , notwithstanding the declaration of Palestinian independence, the limited self-government accorded to the Palestinian Authority as a result of the Oslo Accords, and Israel's withdrawal from Gaza as part of the Israel's unilateral disengagement plan of , which saw the dismantlement of four Israeli settlements in the West Bank and all settlements in the Gaza Strip.

In March , it was reported that the PA was working to increase the number of countries that recognize Palestine and that a PA representative had signed a bilateral agreement between the State of Palestine and Costa Rica. These instances of foreign relations undertaken by the PA signify that the Interim Agreement is part of a larger on-going peace process, and that the restrictions on the foreign policy operations of the PA conflict with the inalienable right of the Palestinian people to self-determination, now a norm with a nature of jus cogens, which includes a right to engage in international relations with other peoples.

In , after Hamas's legislative victories , the Fatah and Hamas engaged into a violent conflict , taking place mainly in the Gaza Strip , leading to effective collapse of the Palestinian national unity government. Though the new government's authority is claimed to extend to all Palestinian territories , in effect it became limited to the West Bank , as Hamas hasn't recognized the move and continued to rule the Gaza Strip. After a two-year impasse in negotiations with Israel, the Palestinian Authority sought to gain recognition as a state according to its borders with East Jerusalem as its capital from the UN General Assembly in September On the prospect of this being successful, U.

And I cannot frankly think of a greater threat to our ability to maintain financial and political support for the United Nations in Congress than such an outcome. Senate passed S.

President Barack Obama to veto the motion and threatening a withdrawal of aid to the West Bank if the Palestinians followed through on their plans. Mahmoud Abbas stated he would accept a return to negotiations and abandon the decision if the Israelis agree to the borders and the right of return for Palestinian refugees.

Israel labelled the plan as a unilateral step, [] to which Foreign Minister Erekat replied,. We declared our state in and we have embassies in more than countries and more countries are recognising our state on the borders. The recognition of the Palestinian state is a sovereignty decision by the countries and it doesn't need to happen through the UN.

On 11 July, the Quartet on the Middle East met to discuss a return to negotiations, but the meeting produced no result. On 13 July, in an interview with Haaretz , Palestinian Ambassador to the United Nations Riyad Mansour claimed that states had so far extended formal recognition to the Palestinian state. The latest stance, however, shows that [Syria] has given up on a national policy that has spanned several decades. Why this abandonment of a national principle, and what is the motive behind it?

There is no motive except to satisfy international powers that seek to appease Israel". On 23 September, Abbas delivered to the UN Secretary-General the official application for recognition of a Palestinian state by the UN and a membership in the same organization. Following consultations between the representatives of the member board, the draft resolution was put for voting on 5 October. The board voted in favour of recommending the application, winning the approval of 40 states.

By September , with their application for full membership stalled, Palestinian representatives had decided to pursue an upgrade in status from "observer entity" to "non-member observer state". On November 27 it was announced that the appeal had been officially made, and would be put to a vote in the General Assembly on November 29, where their status upgrade was expected to be supported by a majority of states.

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In addition to granting Palestine "non-member observer state status", the draft resolution "expresses the hope that the Security Council will consider favorably the application submitted on 23 September by the State of Palestine for admission to full membership in the United Nations, endorses the two state solution based on the pre borders, and stresses the need for an immediate resumption of negotiations between the two parties. Switzerland was also a non-member observer state until The change in status was described by The Independent as " de facto recognition of the sovereign state of Palestine".

The vote was a historic benchmark for the recognition of the State of Palestine , whilst it was widely considered a diplomatic setback for Israel and the United States. Status as an observer state in the UN allows the State of Palestine to participate in general debate at the General Assembly, to co-sponsor resolutions, to join treaties and specialized UN agencies.

However, in April prosecutors refused to open the investigation, saying it was not clear if the Palestinians were qualified as a state - as only states can recognize the court's jurisdiction. The UN now can also help to affirm the borders of the Palestinian territories that Israel occupied in The UN has, after the resolution was passed, permitted Palestine to title its representative office to the UN as 'The Permanent Observer Mission of the State of Palestine to the United Nations', [] seen by many as a reflexion of the UN's de facto recognition of the State of Palestine's sovereignty , [] and Palestine has started to re-title its name accordingly on postal stamps, official documents and passports.

The current position of the Palestinian Authority is that all of the West Bank and Gaza Strip should form the basis of a future " State of Palestine ". Israeli governments have maintained that the area involved is subject to future negotiations, and within territorial dispute. The main discussion since has focused on turning most or all of the Gaza Strip and the West Bank into an independent Palestinian state.

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This was the basis for the Oslo accords , [] and it is, as a matter of official policy, favoured by the U. Some members of the PLO recognize Israel's right to exist within these boundaries; others hold that Israel must eventually be destroyed. Israel declares that its security demands that a "Palestinian entity" would not have all attributes of a state, at least initially, so that in case things go wrong, Israel would not have to face a dangerous and nearby enemy.

Israel may be therefore said to agree as of now not to a complete and independent Palestinian state, but rather to a self-administering entity, with partial but not full sovereignty over its borders and its citizens. The central Palestinian position is that they have already compromised greatly by accepting a state covering only the areas of the West Bank and Gaza. These areas are significantly less territory than allocated to the Arab state in UN Resolution They feel that it is unacceptable for an agreement to impose additional restrictions such as level of militarization, see below which, they declare, makes a viable state impossible.

In particular, they are angered by significant increases in the population of Israeli settlements and communities in the West Bank and Gaza Strip during the interim period of the Oslo accords. Palestinians claim that they have already waited long enough, and that Israel's interests do not justify depriving their state of those rights that they consider important.

The Palestinians have been unwilling to accept a territorially disjointed state. Whitbeck the decree results in absorbing of the Palestinian Authority into the State of Palestine. On 5 January Abbas ordered all Palestinian embassies to change any official reference to the Palestinian Authority into State of Palestine. On 6 January , Abbas ordered his cabinet of ministers to prepare regulations to issue new Palestinian passports , official signs and postage stamps in the name of the 'State of Palestine'. For the time being the governments of the renamed Authority established in and of the State established in remain distinct.

In the s, outstanding steps were taken which formally began a process the goal of which was to solve the Arab—Israeli conflict through a two-state solution. Beginning with the Madrid Conference of and culminating in the Oslo Peace Accords between Palestinians and Israelis, the peace process has laid the framework for Palestinian autonomy in the West Bank and in Gaza. East Jerusalem, which had been annexed by Israel in was not mentioned in any of the agreements. Following the landmark accords, the Palestinian National Authority PNA was established to govern those areas from which Israel was to pull out.

The PNA was granted limited autonomy over a non-contiguous area, though it does govern most Palestinian population centers. The process stalled with the collapse of the Camp David Summit between Palestinians and Israel , after which the second Intifada broke out.

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Israel ceased acting in cooperation with the PNA. In the shadow of the rising death toll from the violence, the United States initiated the Road Map for Peace published on June 24, , which was intended to end the Intifada by disarming the Palestinian terror groups and creating an independent Palestinian state. The Road Map has stalled awaiting the implementation of the step required by the first phase of that plan with then Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon stating within weeks of the release of the final text that a settlement freeze, one of Israel's main requirements, would be "impossible" because of the need for settlers to build new houses and start families.

Hamas, Fatah, and the other Palestinian political factions signed the reconciliation agreement in the official signing ceremony of that agreement which took place on May 4, In , U. In , Al Jazeera published thousands of classified documents that it had received from sources close to negotiators in the negotiation talks between Israeli Prime Minister Olmert and Palestinian Chairman Mahmoud Abbas. The documents, dubbed the Palestine Papers , showed that in private the Palestinians had made major concessions on issues that had scuttled previous negotiations.

Olmert also presented his ideas for the borders for a Palestinian state, dubbed the "Napkin Map" because of Abbas having to sketch the map on a napkin because Olmert refused to allow Abbas to keep a copy for further consideration. Olmert's proposal largely followed the route of the Israeli West Bank barrier , and placed all of the Israeli settlement blocs and East Jerusalem Jewish neighbourhoods under Israeli sovereignty. The pace of the talks were assessed by the US as "break through". However, on 25 September Netanyahu did not renew a month moratorium on settlement construction in the West Bank , which brought him severe criticism from the United States, Europe and the United Nations.

Abbas stated that Netanyahu could not be trusted as a 'true' peace negotiator if the freeze was not extended. Netanyahu's failure to uphold the commitments he made just a few weeks earlier "to reaching a comprehensive peace agreement with Palestinians" [] through extending the term of moratorium has caused a de facto halt of peace negotiations.

In the press conference on 28 September Netanyahu stated "Israel, Palestinians can reach Middle-East peace in a year". Lieberman's proposal was viewed as undermining Netanyahu's credibility in the discussions and causing embarrassment for the Israeli government. According to a New York Jewish leader "Every time when Lieberman voices skepticism for peace talks, he gives Abu Mazen [Abbas] and the Arab League an opportunity to reinforce their claim that Netanyahu isn't serious. The proposal also caused wide 'outrage' among Israelis and US Jews. Seymour Reich , a former president of the Conference of Presidents of Major Jewish Organizations stated that "If Lieberman can't keep his personal opinions to himself, he ought to resign from the cabinet.

There are several plans for a possible Palestinian state. Each one has many variations. Some of the more prominent plans include:. Several plans have been proposed for a Palestinian state to incorporate all of the former British mandate of Palestine pre territory of Israel, the Gaza Strip and the West Bank. Some possible configurations include:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Part of a series on the. Achaemenid Empire Yehud Medinata. Rashidun Jund Filastin , Jund al-Urdunn.